Cannabinoids | Potency Analysis
Cannabinoids are chemical compounds found in cannabis that affect the user by interacting with specific receptors in the central nervous system. There are over 100 different cannabinoids reported in scientific literature, each having a unique biological effect. The composition and potency of cannabinoids vary between strains and are impacted through the cultivation, harvesting, and processing of the plant.
The accurate analysis of cannabis strains and their respective cannabinoid ratios, such as THC to CBD, allow individuals to properly determine a particular product's efficacy and application. Viridis Laboratories extensive cannabinoid profiling reinforces expectations within the cultivation and manufacturing processes. And with this higher level confirmation of strain identity, brings additional confidence for the consumer.
Sample Size Required for Analysis: 3 grams
The different types of cannabinoids found in cannabis
Acid Cannabinoids, Both CBGVA and CBGA are considered to be “stem cell” cannabinoids since they transform into the carboxylic acid precursors of other cannabinoids via enzymatic processes. In the case of CBGA, this carboxylic acid can transform into CBDA, THCA, or other acidic cannabinoid precursors depending on the enzymes to which it is exposed. CBGVA, on the other hand, transforms into precursors of varin cannabinoids such as CBDVA, THCVA, and CBCVA.
Acid cannabinoids can also be transformed into active cannabinoids like Delta-9 THC given a decarboxylation step (heating cannabinoids at specific temperatures).
Cannabichromene (CBC) is non-psychoactive and although considered one of the "big six" cannabinoids prominent in medical research, it doesn't get as much attention. However, CBC's benefits are extremely promising and is considered the third most common cannabinoid found in cannabis. In some cannabis strains it can even exceed the cannabidiol (CBD) content. CBC predominantly interacts on TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors and has many properties that can have a positive effect on one's health.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is considered the second most researched cannabinoid in cannabis. CBD is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that doesn't have the same intoxicating psychoactive effects as Δ9-THC. CBD has been found to interact with a variety of different biological targets, including cannabinoid receptors and other neurotransmitter receptors.
Cannabidivarin (CBDV) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that will not cause the euphoric effect that TCH provides. It is found more prevalently in indica strains, specifically landrace indica strains, and strains that are lower in tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Cannabigerol (CBG) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid typically most abundant in low-THC, high-CBD cannabis strains. Like THC, CBG reacts with the cannabinoid receptors in the brain. It is known to be the only cannabinoid with the ability to stimulate the growth of new brain cells. CBG, however, acts as a buffer to the psychoactivity of THC, by working to alleviate the paranoia sometimes caused by higher levels of THC.
Cannabicyclol, also called CBL, is one of the least known and studied cannabinoids in the cannabis plant. Although it is commonly found in many varieties, in particular those with a higher content of CBC (Cannabichromene), the amount of CBL produced in trichomes is always very low, so it doesn't usually receive the attention given to other, more plentiful compounds of the plant with a much more noticeable presence, such as THC, CBD or CBN.
One of the main characteristics of CBL is the absence of psychoactivity in its effect. In fact, CBL shares its formula with many of the other phytocannabinoids produced by cannabis, even with psychoactive compounds, although it differs slightly in its structure meaning that its effects vary enormously.
Cannabinol (CBN) is a cannabinoid and effective compound that contributes to cannabis' effects on the body and mind. CBN works as a psychoactive compound like THC does, but it has a milder impact. The reason for this is as TCH begins aging, it begins transforming into CBN. The benefit of this is, CBN mainly activates the CB2 receptors, which affect the immune system. It also interacts with the CB1 receptors to a lesser degree which work with the central nervous system.
Delta-8 is a cannabis compound that has become popular because of its similarity to delta-9 THC, the main compound in cannabis that gets you high, causing euphoria, happiness, sedation, symptom relief, and much more. Large amounts of THC are found in a majority of cannabis strains. The similarities between the two cannabinoids lie in their chemical structures and their names. THC’s scientific name is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or delta9 THC, or just delta-9. Delta-8 is short for delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol, or delta-8 THC. The two THCs are chemically different in the placement of the double bond. Both cannabinoids have a chain of carbon atoms, but delta-8 has the double bond on the eighth carbon, whereas delta-9 has it on the ninth.
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) is a psychotropic cannabinoid and is one of the most commonly found cannabinoids in cannabis and gives one a euphoric felling. THC is one of few psychoactive cannabinoids that binds to CB1 & CB2 receptors in the body. This can produce a wide-range of biological and behavioral responses which can provide health and enjoyment benefits.
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ9-THCA), in the presence of specific enzymes, are converted into specific acids during the growth of the cannabis plant. For instance, The THCA synthase enzyme converts CBGA to tetrahydrocannabinolic acid within a catalytic step.
Since CBGA is converted to other acid cannabinoids during cannabis growth, it is commonly referred to as a "parental" cannabinoid. Acid cannabinoids (CBDA, CBCA, CBGA and THCA) can also be transformed into active cannabinoids (CBD, CBC, CBG, THC) given a decarboxylation step (heating cannabinoids at specific temperatures).
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ9-THCV or simply THCV) is a homolog of THC, and therefore these two cannabinoids have very similar chemical structures. It has been said that in small quantities THCV acts as an THC cannabinoid antagonist (THCV reduces THC effects), but in larger quantities THCV acts as a THC agonist (it bolsters or enhances its effects). THCV is found in high concentrations in African sativas.
THCP comes out of the 140 phytocannabinoids derived from cannabis. THCP contributes a 0.1% ratio, naturally in the plants and contains an analog of THC. THCP (Tetrahydrocannabiphorol) contains seven carbon atoms of an alkyl chain, a derivative of THC. THCP unveils double effects than THC in binding with the CB1 receptor evealing having thirty times more efficacy in connecting with the CB1 receptor.
Delta 10 is a minor cannabinoid amidst the hundreds of cannabinoids found in cannabis and hemp plants. Unlike the most prominent cannabinoids like CBD, THC, and CBG, Delta 10 only occurs naturally in very low concentrations at the plant’s early stages. Delta-9 THC is the cannabinoid that’s known to be responsible for making us feel the highs associated with cannabis. The main difference between that Delta-10 is simply where the bonds are in their chemical structures; Delta-9 has its bond on the ninth carbon chain, Delta-8’s is on the eighth, and Delta-10’s is on the tenth.
exo-THC, also known as ∆9-11-THC, occurs as an impurity of ∆9-THC formed during its synthesis.
Tetrahydrocannabivarin Acid (THCVA) is the carboxylic acid precursor to tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), enzymatically biosynthesized as CBGVA is converted to THCVA. When THCVA is decarboxylated into THCV, it does not produce a psychoactive effect as does THCA when decarboxylated into THC. THCVA research is limited, but it is known to be a CB1 receptor antagonist and a CB2 receptor agonist as well as a modulator of various cation channels. Pharmacological research is limited but appetite suppression and anti-inflammatory effects may be among its properties.
THC-O is an ester of THC. It can be synthesized through a chemical process using acetic anhydride, a high-inflammable and colorless liquid used to make fibers, plastics, pharmaceuticals, dyes, and explosives.The production of this compound requires specialized equipment as it involves using volatile and flammable chemicals. The process to synthesize THC-O consists of extracting delta-8 THC from CBD extracted from the hemp plant. Finally, acetic anhydride is added to the delta-8 THC molecules to produce THC-O acetate. There is no confirmed data on how potent THC-O is. Several news publications report that THC-O is more potent than more popular THC as it is reported to be three times as powerful as THC.
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