Hop Latent Viroid (HpLVd)

Hop latent viroid (HpLVd) refers to a single-stranded, circular infectious RNA. Originally identified in hops, HpLVd has made its way to cannabis cultivation sites. In hops, the viroid produces no symptoms. In cannabis and hemp plants, symptoms are referred to as "dubbing" and include the following:

Stunted growth

Reduced vigor

Brittle stems

Smaller flowers

Immature trichomes

Sample Size Required for Analysis: 1 leaf and/or roots


A pathogenic fugus that causes a gray mold on plants, typically leading to rot and decay. In cannabis specifically, Botrytis is known as “bud rot” and tends to affect the top colas of plants in late flower. However, it is able to infect all parts of the plant at any life stage. Symptoms include:

A white dusting on buds in the early stages of infection

Once established, a gray mold on the inner portions of buds, often on the large top colas

Necrosis or dying tissue around the infected area

Sample Size Required for Analysis: 1 leaf near the top of the plant


A group of filamentous fungi found naturally in soil and associated with plants. Often infecting young vegetative plants, fusarium wilt can destroy a crop easily and is hard to combat once it has taken hold in an environment. Infection often occurs initially in roots but quickly spreads throughout the plant. Symptoms include:

Leaf spotting and curling

Wilting of leaves

Eventual necrosis of plant tissue

Sample Size Required for Analysis: 1 leaf and 1-2 in. of roots (preferably larger in diameter)
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